How to store data locally in the Android app


How to store data locally in the Android app

How to store data locally in the Android app – Virtually all non-trivial applications will have to store data in one way or another. This data can be different forms, such as the user’s configuration, the configuration of the application, the user’s data, the images or a cache of data obtained from the Internet. Some applications can generate data that ultimately belong to the user, so they would prefer to store the data (perhaps documents or media) in a public place that the user can examine at any time, using other applications. Other applications may want to store data, but you do not want to read this data with other applications (or even the user). The basic Android app platform provides developers with multiple ways to store data, each with its advantages and disadvantages.

There are four different ways to store data in an Android app:

Read Also – Top Android Interview Questions and Answers for 2019

Shared Preferences

You must use this to store primitive data in key-value pairs. It has a key, which must be a String and the corresponding value for that key, which can be one of Boolean, float, int, long or string Internally, the Android platform stores the Shared Preferences of an application in an XML file in a private directory. An application can have multiple files of shared preferences. Ideally, you will want to use the shared preferences to store the preferences of the application.

Internal Storage

There are a lot of situations where you may want your data to continue but your shared preferences are too limited. You may want to continue with Java objects or images. Or the data must remain logical by using a file system hierarchy. The internal data storage method is for those situations where you need to store data on the device file system, but you do not want any other application (even the user) to read this data. Data stored using the internal storage method is completely private to the application and is deleted from the device when the application is uninstalled.

External Storage

Conversely, there are other cases in which you may want the user to see the files and data saved by your application if desired. To save (and/or read) files to the device’s external storage, your application must request the WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission. If you only want to read from external storage without writing, request the READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission. The WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission grants read/write access. However, as of Android 4.4, you can write to a “private” external storage folder without requesting WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE. The “private” folder can be read by other applications and by the user, however, the data stored in these folders are not scanned by the media scanner. This app_private folder is located in the Android/data directory, and it is also deleted when your application is uninstalled.

Starting with Android 7.0, apps can request access to a particular directory, rather than requesting access to the entire external volume. This way, your app can, for example, request access to the image directory only or to the document directory. This is referred to as access to a specific domain. For more information about Android …….

How to store data locally in the Android app

SQLite database

Finally, Android provides support for applications to use SQLite databases for data storage. The databases created are specific to the application and are available for any class within the application, but not for external applications. It goes without saying that, before you decide to use an SQLite database for data storage in your application, you must have some knowledge of SQL.

Android Training in Chandigarh provides complete training of Android with live projects and practical classes.


What is Responsive Web Design?

Responsive design is a Web design and development technique that creates a site or system that interacts with the size of the user’s screen. The quick design responds by improving the user browsing experience by creating a responsive and flexible web page that is optimized on the device that accesses it.

Rapid web design response is an approach that proposes that design and development respond to user behavior and environment based on screen size, platform and routing.

This exercise includes a mixture of flexible grid and an intelligent use of layouts, images and CSS media queries. Since the user switches from the laptop to the iPad, the website should automatically switch to adjust the resolution, image size and scripting capabilities. You may also have to look at the settings on their devices; if they have an iOS VPN on the iPad, for example, the website should not prevent the user from accessing the page. In other words, the website must have the technology necessary to automatically respond to user preferences. This would eliminate the need for a different design and development stage for each new instrument in the market.

There is a wide variety of information on sensitive web design available on the Internet, and much of that information is abstract, philosophical and anecdotal. If you are looking for a clear and concrete understanding of the basis of sensitive web design, there are three techniques that work together in Responsive Web Design:

What is Responsive Web Design?


  • Fluid Image
  • Fluid Grid
  • Media Quarry

Read Related Article –

Fluid Image and Fluid Grid:-

What is the best way to design a website that is displayed on hundreds of different screen sizes, some of which may not yet exist? The best way is not one made up of catering for specific devices; it makes your design more flexible, flexible and adaptable to screens of all sizes, even sizes that are not yet popular.

Media Queries:-

Media queries are probably the most important tool a web designer has to make their sites receptive. This set of rules allows developers to create fluid designs that adapt without distortion or loss of quality to the viewer’s device. It is good to note that this set of guidelines (or rules) should be stored in a CSS style sheet separate from the general style sheet (which is usually called style.css).

You can type as many media queries as you want. Its main purpose is to apply different CSS rules to get different layouts, depending on the width of the display window granted to your content. Values ​​in media queries are characterized by their percentage, not pixels, and this is the specific option that makes the different page elements flexible and flexible.

Need a Responsive Website design:-

In today’s fast-paced world, everyone prefers to get information on the march. From finding a taxi to booking tickets, the internet has taken over our lives and has given us the convenience of doing things directly from our phones while sitting at home or anywhere. This revolutionary trend has led to the rise of Mobile First Approach.

Due to the increasingly complex landscape on the web, it has become extremely important to deliver robust web experiences to an increasing number of contexts. All companies are also using improved device solutions effectively in new ways to attract more guests to their services.

They have observed that users find it much easier to search for Google destinations or their portals on their mobile phones or, at most, on iPad / tablets. If your company’s website is not optimized for mobile devices, it is off the radar and is losing a large part of the audience. Therefore, having an adaptable website for mobile devices is the need of all the businesses of today that want to address the public of each category.

Benefits of Responsive Website Designing:-

  • Improve the offline browsing experience for the user
  • Increase your reach to the tablet and the mobile audience.
  • Save cost and time on mobile development
  • Consolidate your analytics and reporting
  • Develop faster mobile in less
  • More mobile traffic
  • Responsive web design is important to improve your search engine as high-quality content.

As the Internet took off faster than anyone had predicted, it would grow as crazy. Now, during the last few years, mobile growth has exploded on the scene. The growth of mobile Internet use is also far from the overall growth of Internet use. It is difficult to find someone who does not have a mobile device, or multiple, connected to the Internet.

you’ll get the buzzwords, the philosophy and the conjecture of “responsive web design” and in clear conceptual concepts and truly technical applications. We have defined its basic characteristics and how to begin to implement the response approach with real examples. In our Web Design course in Chandigarh, you will have the opportunity to gain a deep and practical knowledge.


Android vs iOS Development: Which Platform is Better?

choosing the right platform to manufacture your first application is a half of achievement. Do you know that each fourth user (about 23%) leave an application after a single use? You would prefer not to have such an experience, isn’t that so? You can bring down risk by obviously characterizing your aims, audience and resources. Yet, it is additionally vital to know fundamental differences of Android and iOS stages. Would you like to get the most recent information on this topic? Follow us!

IOS vs Android Development: Which Is to Select?

By the start of 2017, iOS and Android share an incredible bit of the mobile market – 96%, leaving all other operating system far behind. In any case, you need to pick out of this 2 variations in any case. Interesting fact:  Instagram, first begin on iOS in 2010, became accessible for Android users only 4 years after the fact, in 2014.

For both platforms, it is better to create an app at the same time, but there are some reasons to do so:

It’s risky. No one can tell whether your users will like your application or not, so it’s better to test it in one of the markets at first.

“Well,” you can answer, “So who should I choose?” I hope the comparison of our Android and iOS is the best answer to this question! Look at the complexity of both platforms and find their strengths and weak point.

Android vs iOS Development: Which Platform is Better?

Business aspects of iOS vs. Android development: Do not miss pieces of pie!

What do you need your application to resemble? You need it to be gainful and popular, beyond any doubt. What’s more, trust it or not, it also depends upon the platform you have chosen. How? How about we have a more intensive look!

1. Market share and number of users

5 years back, in 2012, Android with its 21.5% offer of the world’s mobile market would appear a looser contrasting with iOS 61%. Presently, over only a half of decade, the circumstance has significantly changed.

2017 Android is 64% of the world’s mobile market, which is twice that of iOS (32%). Numbers represent themselves.

Obviously, you ought to also consider other statistical details, yet have 2 possible user rather than 1, would it say it isn’t extraordinary? So in the first round of Android versus iOS development one point goes to Android.

2. Average revenue

You need your application to be well known as well as productive? Everybody needs! You may think, if Android has a greater bit of the pie, it additionally has a bigger income or larger avenue. And that’s where you are wrong.

With the 82% development in net revenue amid 2016, Android still remains behind iOS (which has developed by 60% during the most recent year). The difference is quite obvious: having a half the same number of users, Apple App Store got relatively 64% more revenue.

The income of Android’s Google Play and Apple’s App Store

Numbers talk. Once more. One point goes to iOS.


It might appear obvious that Android has more application downloads than iOS. “What does it say to me?” you may inquire. Possibly Android versus iOS applications revenue comparison looks progressively appealing for you, yet the fact of the matter is that Android applications collect more cash from advertisements. More downloads mean more users. More users mean more benefit from advertisements. It’s as basic as that!

Technical aspects: how to avoid difficulties?

When choosing a platform for a mobile app, you should also consider technical factors. They will help you understand how is cheap, easy and fast.

1. Development complexity

With regards to the development complication of an Android application versus iOS application, Android loses. What’s more, we may not in any case think about differences in the programming language. The primary difficulty lies in the dissolution.

Apple has the set number of devices running on iOS: iPhone, iPod and iPad. Additionally, the latest measurements appears, that over half of users refreshed their operating system to the most recent version (iOS 11) during the first 3 weeks after the release. Presently this number is as high as 80%.

iOS designers need to manufacture an application just for the newest operating system version

It makes lives of iOS developers simpler. A development improvement procedure flow faster of the fact that you need to create your application for a restricted scope of device and operating system.

But if we talk about Android, it’s only a wreck. There are many cell phones and tablets on Android with various screen sizes and perspective proportions. It implies your application ought to be appropriate for every one of them. Or possibly for the greatest part.

A similar thing is about operating system. Here you can’t discover any, which is utilized by over half of Android device owners. What’s more, it implies that you again need to consider this distinction while building your application.

2. Development time

After reading the previous, it might be anything but difficult to think about what stage you will invest more time in building your application. Indeed, it’s Android. What’s more, yes once more, as a result of its discontinuity. So when contrasting an Android developer versus iOS designer, the last one has less work to do.

Android Studio is a usual “workplace” for Android developer

Some say it takes 30-40% longer for Android designers to make a mobile application even despite not very difficult programming language (for Android developer use Java or Kotlin, for iOS – Objective-C/Swift). What’s more, we’re trying to spare our time and right, isn’t that so?

3. Development costs

This is the important question for every developer, yet it has no reasonable answer. What’s more, that is the reason:

On the other hand, building an Android application is all the more expensive because of a greater number of operating system and devices you’ll have to design for. In any case, Android Studio (application for Android applications development) can be installed on any modern Computer

Then again, Xcode, which is required for structuring iOS applications, is accessible just for Mac, so you should get one alongside iPhone or iPad. Also, it will cost you a pretty penny.

4. Publishing

Till now it appeared that iOS applications are simpler, quicker and somewhat less expensive to design. Yet, even when your application is done and prepared to conquer users everywhere throughout the world, there is one essential step left – distributing to the application store.

Google Play Store gives you a chance to transfer your application for a one off  $25 payment and without a long and strict approval process. Infact, your mobile application will be accessible inside a few hours. You can also easily and openly run a live beta test or refresh it. There’s nothing more to it!

In any case, even when your application is done and prepared to overcome users everywhere throughout the world, there is one imperative step left – distributing to the application store.

Be that as it may, in the event that you are searching for a long and stimulate “experience”, you should Choose iOS. In any case, reconsider. Each application and even refresh in App Store experiences a strict approval process by people. What’s more, it might end not to support you, which will effort wasted.  The main way out is to attempt again and again, until your application is affirmed.

What’s more, one additionally thing: rather than on-off $25 payment in Google Play, Apple App Store set up $100 yearly expense.

In this Android versus iOS improvement duel Android is the evident winner.

In any case, actually, nobody is the champ. Every stage has its very own advantages and disadvantages, and their significance may change as per your needs.

Be that as it may, there is something else which can help you. It’s constantly critical to know your target audience and to design a mobile application as according to its preferences, interests and different attributes. So here is a general picture of iOS and Android users.

Read Also – Why Do We need to Take up Android Training

Case study

We additionally chose to give you a few clues, which will assist you with choosing the correct variation between iOS versus Android development specifically for your projects. So here are the most popular questions and answers provided by Android training in Chandigarh.

Question 1. Which platform should I choose to create e-commerce app or to create a food distribution app?

Answer: IOS, because its users have high revenue on average and spend more money in mobile apps.

Question 2. Which platform should I choose if I want to make profit from in-app ads?

Answer: Surely Android, because there are twice as many users in it, who are more inclined to see the ad.

Question 3. Which platform is better for designing mobile games?

Answer: Game App Store is the most popular category in both, but on Android, this app has 90% of all revenues, while for iOS 75%. This means Android is much better.


The wrestle Android versus iOS appears to end up significantly harder. Most likely, that every platform has its advantages and disadvantages. Besides, if the one was perfect, for what reason would we require the second?

In order to aggregate up how about we investigate the solid and powerless purposes of these two platform:


Advantages of Android development Disadvantages of Android development:
  • Bigger market;
  • Due to fragmentation, the app is long and difficult to design;
  • More app downloads;
  • More expensive;
  • Faster and less restrictive publication process;
  • Android apps get less revenue on the average;
  • Higher revenue from in-app ads.
  • More potential bugs.


What about iOS?


Advantages of iOS app development: Disadvantages of iOS app development:
  • Easier, faster and cheaper building process;
  • iOS has twice fewer users;
  • Solid market share in the USA and Europe;
  • More difficult to publish an app;
  • Brings more revenue on the average;
  • You have to buy Mac and iPhone or iPad;
  • Apps have fewer bugs.
  • Apps bring less revenue from in-app ads.


So as should be obvious there is no all inclusive answer for any case. You should thoroughly consider all perspectives previously making the final choice. We are certain that you won’t fail. What’s more, we Hope that this article conveyed you one step nearer to your success.

If you are looking best Android training in Chandigarh than Join Cbitss technologies. Cbitss Provides Best training in Chandigarh ..


What Is Web Designing | Web Designing Course in Chandigarh

  • When we generate, update, or plan any website, we call it Web Designing.
  • As the builder of a builder has to make the building, in the same way Web Designer’s effort is to be created.
  • Two Types Of Web designing – Front End Web Design and Back End Web.

    Front End Web Design:

    As the name suggests, Front End Web Design  drop in front, i.e. from the part that is clear to the user. When we open any website, whatever appear  in front of us is the work of Front End designer. Our aim from Front End Web Designing is not just to adorn the website, through web designing, we have to keep in mind what to add to what makes guest coming to our website is not a issue. If we compare it with a car then the work of Front End designer is to beautify the car, it does not make sense with the engine engine, the battery engine indoors the car is the job of all the Back End builder.

    Back End Web Developer:

    Web Developer makes the minds of the site, with the end goal that in the event that a shape is rounded out on the site, who should achieve it, in the event that somebody enters the ID/secret phrase, what sort of profile should open such things. Crafted by the Back End Developer isn’t noticeable to the guest, yet without the advancement, an extraordinary site can not be made.

    What Is Web Designing | Web Designing Course in Chandigarh | CBitss Technologies

  • What to learn to become a Web Designer?

    Front hand  Web Design and Back End Web Development should be both information to become a good Web Designer.

    What to Learn for Front End Design?

    First we start with Front End Designing.

    Photo shop Basics :

    Just like we build a map from the architecture to build the house, in the same way before designing the website, we should have an idea that the website will look like. Numerous individuals plan the whole site on a great deal of photo Shop, however the individuals who are specialists do make Photo shop just to make a diagram or model.

    HTML :

    HTML means Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is a markup language used to create a website structure. HTML is a dialect that is written as code.

    CSS :

    CSS means Cascading Style Sheet. HTML is used to give format to our website and on the other hand CSS is used to design the format  of our HTML, it is used to give the style to our design.


    Here we start programming completely. HTML / CSS creates our website, but JS is used to make the design interactive. With collective I mean, if you click on the Friend request icon on Facebook, a bubble down opens below. JavaScript detects what the user has complete on your website and give to that action, it changes the design. At the point when the pictures are moving around on a site then JavaScript pivots them. HTML and CSS can generate a really good Static Website. In the event that you simply learned Photoshop, HTML and CSS, you can discover work in an IT organization and make a decent site.

    What to Learn for Front End Design?

    With HTML / CSS / JS you can create static website, you can not create features like hum database entry, Login, Register in static website.


    In any case, numerous dialects ​​can be kept running on the backend, however initially learning PHP is simple. PHP is incredible and can make each component perform. Facebook was built on PHP only.

    Learning PHP is also beneficial because it allows us to create a website in less money. With this we can also learn to design web site on WordPress, the world’s largest website and blogs are made on WordPress, so learning PHP will make it easier for you to create WordPress.


    When we make an ID on Facebook or watch a video on YouTube So this is the place every one of the information is put away, we call Database. The most ordinarily utilized information is MySQL, in the wake of learning it, you can likewise store the logos of information on your site. Languages ​​like PHP are being utilized to store anything in a database like MySQL.

    Web Designing is a skill that will be very demanding in the future. Hard work will be done to go to the Expert level. But for hard work, only poverty has been written in life.

    If you still have a question about Web Designing, then Join Cbitss Technologies, Cbitss Provides Best Web Designing course  in chandigarh and give me the answer, “Do you want to learn Web Designing?”





Tally ERP 9 Release 6.4.8 | Tally new Update

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Best php training in Chandigarh – PHP training institute | Cbitss Technologies

CBitss technologies provides best php training in Chandigarh based on current industry standards that helps attendees to secure placements in their dream jobs at MNCs. CBitss  provides best php training in Chandigarh. CBitss is one of the most credible php training institutes in Chandigarh offering hands on practical knowledge and full job assistance with basic as well as advanced level PHP training courses. At CBitss  PHP training in Chandigarh is conducted by subject specialist corporate professionals with 7+ years of experience in managing real-time PHP projects. CBitss  implements a blend of aPHPemic learning and practical sessions to give the student optimum exposure that aids in the transformation of naive students into thorough professionals that are easily recruited within the industry.

At CBitss ’s well-equipped php training in Chandigarh aspirants learn the skills for A brief history of databases, Relational database concepts, Creation of database and required tables using PHPMyadmin, Inserting Qualities into Tables, PHP Training on continuous undertakings alongside PHP position preparing. PHP Training in Chandigarh has been designed as per latest industry trends and keeping in mind the advanced PHP course content and syllabus that are based on the professional requirement of the student or individual and also helping them to get placement in Multinational companies and achieve their career and goals.

CBitss  is the biggest PHP training institute in Chandigarh with high tech infrastructure and lab facilities and the options of opting for multiple courses at Chandigarh Location. CBitss  in Chandigarh prepares thousands of aspirants for PHP at reasonable fees that is customized keeping in mind training and course content requirement of each attendee.

PHP training course involves “Learning by Doing” using state-of-the-art infrastructure for performing hands-on exercises and real-world simulations. This broad hands-on involvement in PHP preparing guarantees that you assimilate the learning and aptitudes that you should apply at work after your situation in a MNC.

CBitss technologies is one of the best php training institute in Chandigarh with 100% placement support. CBitss  has well defined course modules and training sessions for students. At CBitss  PHP training is conducted during day time classes, weekend classes, evening batch classes and fast track training classes.


Professional Computer Courses After 12th IN CHANDIGARH

After high school, you can opt for the following IT courses.     


CBitss technologies offers Best Android Training in Chandigarh with top level Corporate Trainers.  CBitss technologies is a leading Industrial training institute in Chandigarh.We give best learning condition to real specialized course at sensible cost. The best Android App Development training institute in Chandigarh offers the best technical IT training for the regarding course. We provide basic and advanced level Android App Development Training in Chandigarh with proper practically knowledge at CBitss technologies.


Web Designing Training in chandigarh – Web Designing is the process of building websites. This incorporates format outline, markup, text styles, pictures, content and responsive utilities. In IT Sector, Web Designing with UI. User Interface Development is one the most requesting course with greatest openings for work.

CBitss Technologies Provides Best Web designing Training in chandigarh as per the current industry standards. Our readiness ventures will engage specialists to grapple courses of action in MNCs.. CBitss Technologies Is one of the most recommended Web designing Training Institute in chandigarh that offers hands on practical knowledge / practical implementation on live projects and will ensure the activity with the assistance of development level Web planning Training Courses. At CBitss Technologies Web designing Training in chandigarh is conducted by specialist working certified corporate professionals having 8+ years of experience in implementing real-time Web designing projects.



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Why Do We need to Take up Android Training

Objective of the course

Let us learn why we need to take up android training, firstly we begin by explaining all the components and libraries provided by Android Training in Chandigarh to develop applications  that will run on the latest mobile devices that have this operating system installed.


Course Duration

Technical Training and Certification

Introduction to the Android platform. Fundamentals of Android programming.

Android Structure

System architecture. Licenses. User interface. Menus. Menu options and dialog menus. Dialogues. Event processing. Button, keyboard and motion events. Notifications. Notification bar, Clock Display. Styles and themes. Views. Object view. 2D and 3D graphics. Draw with Canvas and OpenGL. Resource Files. Android Manifesto. Name of the application, method of execution, definition of Main Activity. XML Formats. Alias resources and internationalization. Substitution of resources using the Alternative option. Concepts of security, security, and permissions. Components of the application. Intentions and filters of intentions. Roles of intentions. Link with Applications. Implicit and explicit intentions. Activities Life Cycle. Content providers. Service life cycle. Broad Cast Receiver Storage. Introduction to I / O files. Preferences. Save and read application data. SQLite. Use SQL in the database. Communications.

Network protocols (HTTP, TCP / IP). Packages and Bluetooth. Android. Bluetooth package. Wifi. Android WiFi Package. External devices and managers. GPS. GPS sensor package. Sensors. Sensor pack. Multimedia. Audio. Video. Use media files. Testing. Framework Junit. Automated testing. Native code. JNI. Script language (ASE). Introduction to NDK. External devices and managers. GPS. GPS sensor package. Sensors. Sensor pack. Multimedia. Audio. Video. Use media files. Testing. Framework Junit. Automated testing. Native code. JNI. Script language (ASE). Introduction to NDK. External devices and managers. GPS. GPS sensor package. Sensors. Sensor pack. Multimedia. Audio. Video. Use media files. Testing. Framework Junit. Automated testing. Native code. JNI. Script language (ASE). Introduction to NDK.

Android app publishing

Application management. Versions. Save the version to the manifest file. Private Key Generation. Use the key tools to create private keys. Map API registry key. Using Map View. Distribution of the application. Firm. Signature of file apk. Upgrade. Automatic update from Android Market by version.

Android Support Features

Development functions. Eclipse. Android Development Tools Plugin (adt). File diagnosis with Layoutopt. Editing images with Draw 9-patch. Creating apk files with Android Asset Packaging Tool (aapt). Definition of interfaces with different layers with Android Interface Description Language (aidl). SQLite with sqlite3. Converting class files to dex files with dx. Optimization of apk files with zipalign. Debugging functions. Android Emulator. Android Virtual Devices (AVDs). Show file hierarchy with Hierarchy Viewer. Dalvik Debug Monitor Server (DDMS). Android Debug Bridge (adb). Tracer Android apps with Traceview. Create an SD card image with mksdcard. UI / Application Exerciser Monkey. Android command for AVD and SDK management.

We at Cbitss technologies provide Android training in Chandigarh at sector 34 A, we implement all the latest software that are being used presently with the help of the most experienced teachers who have more than 5 years of experience, the students will be able to learn by working on live projects. If you would like to know more, please visit our office at SCO 23 24 25, Sector 34A.


IELTS test preparation tips

IELTS test preparation tips

Are you doing the IELTS Test Preparation? Then you should read this tips all at once IELTS test preparation.

You know it’s a good thing, but if you do not know then that these 4 parts (Listening-Writing-Reading-Speaking) test is taken in IELTS.

IELTS Test Preparation Tips For Its All Parts :

IELTS Test Preparation Tips For Listening module:

In this, you have to listen carefully first, the ideas you have heard will have to be interpreted, here you will need full attention. You will hear the recording once and you will have to answer the question carefully and answer it.

First and foremost, you need to increase your familiarity with Spoken English to get the Listening Skill Improve, it is better to read and understand the passage better and understand it better. To hear the sound, you will have to deal with spoken English, spoken English By learning your pronunciation correctly, you will improve by learning the language like native speaker.

Your friendship with Spoken English depends on the exposure to it, the more correct pronunciation and accent you like native speaker, the more you will be familiar with Spoken English and your listening skills will improve.

Give more importance to learning the correct pronunciation, use the dictionary to improve the pronunciation.

It would be better for you to use the talking dictionary, because it will be easy to learn the correct pronunciation of words, remember the maximum vocabulary, because if you do not know the meaning of words, and when you listen to the recording, then its cribs do not answer You will not be able to understand.

IELTS test preparation tips


To improve the Listening Skill, you have enough options like …

1. English Song

This will improve your listening skills, if you are a beginner now, it will be difficult for you to understand the word of song. But the time will be easier for you to understand this.

One of the best ways to learn this is that when you are listening to English song, then you can read the lyrics of the song, you can find lyrics of the song on the internet, listening to the English song, and reading along with its lyrics, not just your Spoken English will increase communication but your listening skills will also improve.

2. English Movies

Watching movies is very helpful in improving listening skills, listening to movie dialogues is a great way to improve listening skills. Quali movies look at you very carefully and interested and learn in an informal way.

3. English News

Tuning in to English News on regular routine additionally assumes an essential part in enhancing listening abilities, Newscaster will articulate each word unmistakably and effectively, tuning in to news will enhance your listening, listen daily to TV or radio, in the beginning you will It will be difficult to understand this but it will be easy for you to spend time ‘practice makes mans perfect’.

4. Mutual conversation in english

Discussions will help you improve your speaking and listening together, it will give you an opportunity to speak and listen in English, discuss different topics with your classmate and friends, this will benefit you very much.

IELTS Test Preparation Tips For Writing module:

Writing on event, topic, situation is an art and it can be developed from training and practice.

Writing skills depend on your creativity, inventiveness, style of expression, your own observation, your accuracy in grammar, selection and collection of ideas and right from the thoughts. If you are in Chandigarh & Searching IELTS coaching in Chandigarh then  English-pro is best Place to learn IELTS ..

Creativity means to create and organize new ideas above the subject and situation, in a nutshell to expand the facts in a nutshell. You will be given a subject and a situation which you may know somewhat, depending on your creativity power, The fact that you know and the thoughts that are coming in you How to use it, shape it, and how to properly write (write) on the paper, the relationship between creativity provides your observation power, the situation that provides the source of creativity, according to the observation of ideas and linked with the collection.

You will be given a topic and situation, which you will know somewhat, depending on your creativity power, the fact that you know the facts And what are the ideas within you, how to utilize it, shape it, and how to properly write it on paper. The relationship of creativity is your observation power, the situation that provides the source of creativity, according to the ideas Linked with overview and archive

Creativity is related to your observation power, the situation that provides the source of creativity, according to which it is linked with observation and collection.

It is very important to properly shape expression and style of expression for good writing skills, the style of expression is a good way of presenting your thoughts to your reader.

The reader should easily understand his ideas in such a way that the sentence should have a proper relation and continuity, what is the correct sequence of sentence like what to write first and what to write later, this skill should develop us, effective writing For the good style of expressing, the correct sequence of sentence is very important.

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List of IELTS test preparation tips :

The paragraph should have a special structure, the first line of the paragraph will hold the entire paragraph or center of the subject and further explain the central theme of the other. The first line of paragraph will start with a little space from the left of the page and the paragraph The second line of the page will start from the beginning and from the beginning, the paragraph will hold on the idea of ​​similar Ideas and similar Ideas, always remember this point before writing the paragraph.

The first line of the paragraph will start with a little space from the left of the page, And the second line of the paragraph will start from the left of the page and start from the beginning, the paragraph will hold on the same ideas and explanations of the same ideas, the combination, always remember this point before writing the paragraph.

Make a good outline for writing a detailed tool. When you are given a topic, try writing out the first outlines and brief notes, later to write a comprehensive essay, expand the outlines with more explanation.The quality of writing is not congenial, but it can be developed from training and practice. Try to write on a different topic. In the beginning, writing a simple essay would be a joke but the command to write different things will come.

Select one of the best topics in this topic and whatever you think about that topic in your mind, whatever you want, write it on the paper, your writing ends and then read it, then think again in this What to add so that it can improve further.

IELTS test preparation tips  For Reading module:

1. Practicing Similar Passages

There are many books which will have such passages for practice, you can also find it on the internet, you will have to read the passage and then answer the questions given below, which will be the book to be read, This kind of practice will help you greatly in the preparation of the test, it will also correct your attitude of reading your passage and answering questions, it will teach you how to read the passage and how to respond Sector O.

Read the maximum passage and practice its questions and answers in it, this is the best way to get success in reading module.

The best way to practice this is to read carefully the passages and try to answer it without seeing the correct answer to the questions given in it and check with it later, unless you prepare your own answers to the given questions. Do not look at the correct answer to it, it will tell you about your mistakes and you will get a chance to improve your mistakes.

Reading tips:

2. Effective Reading

Performance depends on how much you read text in your reading.

Reading means not just reading words but there is a purpose behind it, and that purpose is what the writer wants to explain to his reader, understanding that whole idea and sentence, will be called effective reading, effective reading will give you the right picture of the passage .

Most students have the habit of reading only Cursory, they only read the sentence, but what does it do to stop them from understanding the meaning, because of which they can not answer the questions right from Passage.You will have to adopt a effective reading method instead of cursory reading, and it will require your full attention, interest and concentration.

3.General Reading

To improve this skill, magazine, journals, newspaper, general books, good essays are a major contributor, it provides unofficial opportunities for the development of your reading and reading skills.

It does not necessarily require much attention in reading, but it is also true that you have to take full interest in it, due to this you will be able to read easily and quickly, the benefit of this reading is that you will not feel like that time After a long time you will realize its benefits.

IELTS test preparation tips  For Speaking module:

Speaking module will assess your English pronunciation, fluency, grammatical accuracy, meaning that you have to focus on the development of all these things.

There are many ways to improve the fluency, start talking on different topics of one way, select the topic and start talking about it, even if you are sitting alone in the room and there is no one to hear you there, Many people think of you sitting in front of you to listen to you, and you are giving your speech in front of them, talk about the topic as much as you can, your repeated doing this will improve your fluency. .

Another way to improve your fluency is to take part in an English discussion with your friends, if you are a student, it is very easy for you to participate in the discussion on some topics.

A common problem that prevents you from communicating in English, and he does not talk in shyness, mostly in English-speaking, because he has a rate that he will do some mistakes and people will criticize him. Abandon shyness and begin to speak. The person who learns by making mistakes, you will not be able to teach anything without fault.

The correct pronunciation of words is very important. To learn the correct pronunciation, you can take help of the dictionary. You can use the spoken dictionary. It is possible that you can learn not only by reading but also by listening, seeing and hearing daily English news. It can also be a poem.

Speaking in your grammar is also very important part, and it will be developed only by practice, in speaking you will have less time for writing and thinking than writing.

By speaking in English and by taking into account the importance of grammar at that time you can get the command over it.

In this module of IELTS you will be asked about yourself, family background, interests, hobbies, introduce yourself in part 1, how you should introduce yourself and answer the other questions.


In Part 2, you have to speak above the subject, and you will be given 1 minute to prepare for it, create outlines or notes about the topic, which will help you to speak in detail in the given topic, it will also help you in part 3 will help you discuss the issues related to part 2 of them. Read more at –  6 Most Occurring Mistakes in IELTS Writing Task.



HRM Development

Human Resource Management and Development – HRM Notes

Objective :-

  • Introduction To Human Resource Management.
  • Meaning of Human Resource .
  • What is Human Resource Development (HRD)? .
  • Importance of Human Resource in Management .
  • Definitions of Human Resource Planning – HRP .
  • Objectives of Manpower / HR Planning .

 Introduction To Human Resource Management

Each business unit requires Human Resources (manpower) for the conduct of various business activities. In fact, without the support of human resources, an organization can not efficiently exist or operate. Such human resources include top-level managers, officers, supervisors and other subordinate / lower level employees / employees.A business organization will have to assess the manpower requirements of their future and accordingly, adjust their manpower planning and development programs. It is called Management’s ‘Staffing’ function. Human resources management has also been described as personnel management or manpower management.

According to Edwin Flippo, “Personnel management is planning, organizing, directing and controlling the people’s procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance for the purpose of contributing in organizational, personal and social goals.”

Human resource management

Meaning of Human Resource

In an industrial unit, a large number of people are employed to operate different operations and economy. This human resource or manpower is employed. A business unit requires physical resources as well as human resources for various types of operations. In management all the “M” S (such as materials, machines, methods and wealth) stands for the most important “M” men, working in the organization, manpower. It is through manpower / staff that all other elements of enterprise-money, machines, materials, marketing etc. are managed. In essence, Human Resources (Human Resources) is the most important and most productive resource of Industrial / Business Unit.

It is said right that “machines are important in the production process but the man behind the machines is more important”. It turns life into useful products. Human Resources (HR) is a valuable asset of a business entity. Well trained, the faithful and skilled workers of the workers bring success and stability to a business unit.

It suggests the importance of human resources in the business. People and organizations in which they work, are interrelated and interdependent. Organizations only move towards prosperity through their available human resources, in the same way, employees get different monetary and other benefits through their organization’s prosperity.

What is Human Resource Development (HRD)? 

Human resource  improvement (HRD) implies creating labor accessible through proper strategies, for example, preparing, reputation, travel and open door for profession advancement. HRD programs make a team of well-trained, skilled and competent managers and subordinates. Such a team constitutes an important property of an enterprise.An organization is mainly different from the other due to the work done by those people (employees). Peter F. According to Drucker, “Prosperity, if any business does not exist then depends on the performance of tomorrow’s managers.” Human resources should be cherished and used for the benefit of the organization.

Definitions of Human Resource Planning – HRP

1. Coleman has defined the Human Resource Planning as “the means to determine the human power requirements and the means to meet those requirements to meet an integrated plan in the organization”.

2. Steiner defined the “Manpower Scheme for the acquisition, utilization, improvement and protection of the human resources of the enterprise”. It is related to determining the job specifications or the number of required personnel and establishing the quantitative requirements of jobs for the development of manpower resources.

Objectives of Manpower / HR Planning

  1. To ensure optimal utilization of currently employed human resources in the organization.
  2. According to the requirement of renewal, modernization, expansion and development programs, to determine the future manpower requirements of the organization.
  3. To determine the recruitment level.
  4. To ensure that available human resources are available when available.
  5. To assess future housing requirements.
  6. To prepare the basis for management development programs so that necessary talent can be developed between selected employees.


More information Join CBitss Technologies . CBitss Provide best HR training in Chandigarh Sector 34 .