Monthly Archive May 2018


Accounting Introduction

Introduction to Accounting

Objective :-

  • What is accounting?
  • What is the importance of accounting?
  • Definition of accounting
  • Accounting rules and rewards

Accounting :-

Accounting is a process that involves understanding, recording, summarizing and reporting the business’s financial information, which makes it easier to make decisions in terms of financial statements.

 Advantages of Accounting :-

Advantage of the following accounting –

1) By accounting we can understand that there is a profit or loss in a particular period.

2) We can understand the financial position of business

  • There are so many properties in business
  • How much is the loan on business.
  • How many capital is there in business

3) Apart from this, keeping accounting can understand the reasons for the profit or loss of business.

With the benefits given above, we easily understand that accounting is the business’s business.।

Definition In Accounting :-

While learning accounting , we have to use certain words regularly. So first we understand the meaning of these words –

1) Goods: – Goods are bought and sold mainly in the business. For example – in a grocery store there are soaps, oils good. Depending on the purchase of profits and the sale of goods.

2) Assets: – Assets are valuable things that are necessary for business and business wealth. For example – Building, Weekel, Machinery, Furniture.

3) Liabilities: – Liability is given to business by others. For example – loan taken from the bank, purchase of goods on credit.

4) Capital: – Capital is the capital invested by the business owner. It is in the form of a capital cash, goods or assets. When this capital is invested by the business owner, then according to the business, this capital is also a liability.

5) Debtor: – The business which has to take a certain amount of money, is called Debtor.

6) Creditor: – Those who have to pay certain amount to our business are called creditors.

7) Business Transaction: – A financial event that is related to business and whose impact falls on the financial position of the company. For example – Selling goods on the purchase, salaries and credit of goods.

8) Cash Transaction: – Transactions that are made in cash are called cash transactions.

9) Credit Transaction: – The transactions that are done on the transaction credits are called credit transactions.

10) Account: – Account is a statement of any transaction, which affects any assets, liabilities, income or expense.

11) Ledger: – The laser is a book in which all accounts of personal, real or nominal are held, which are in the journal of the journal or assistant.

Types of Accounts:-


1) Personal Accounts: – Accounts of all individuals, societies, trusts, banks and companies are personal accounts. For example – Rahul A /c, Gayatri Sales A / c, Subodh Traders A / c, Bank of Maharashtra A/c.

2) Real Accounts: – Real accounts include all Assets and Goods account. E.g. – Cash A / c, Furniture a / c, Building A/c

3) Nominal Accounts: – All the income and expenses related to the business fall under the nominal account. Eg – Salary A/c, Rent A/c, Commission A/c, Advertisement A/c, Light Bill A/c

Golden Rules of Accounts :-

While transancing, we have to decide on a debit or credit side. Here are the following rules:

Personal Accounts:- Debit : The Receiver or Debtor Credit : The Giver or Creditor

Real Accounts: Debit : What comes in Credit : What goes out

Nominal Accounts: Debit : All Expenses & Losses Credit : All Incomes & Gains

Double Entry System of Bookkeeping:

Each transaction affects two businesses in two ways. for example,

  1. Bought in Goods Cash – Goods are coming into this business in this transaction but     at the same time cash out of business is going out.
  2. Dutta sold on good credit to traders – Goods in this transaction are going out of business and at the same time Datta traders become debtors of our business.
  3. According to the double entry system – While recording all such business transactions in the account, there are two aspects: Debit aspect (giving) and Credit aspect (giving).

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Features of Tally ERP 9

Tally training in Chandigarh

New features in Tally ERP 9 have been included –

Remote Access:

Tally ERP 9 provides the ability to access data via remote from anywhere. The user creates remote user IDs from this scrawl, authorizes and removes access to remote access.

NET (read as Tally.NET)

Tally.NET creates a favorable environment by default, which works backwards to facilitate various services based on the Internet. Each Tally EAP9 is enabled for this .NET service. Tally.Net offers the following services / capabilities – Tally.NET FEATURES:

  • Creating and maintaining a remote user
  • Remote access
  • Remote Center
  • sport Center
  • Synchronization of data through Tally (.NET)
  • Product Updates and Upgrades
  • Simplified Installation process

Tally ERP 9 comes with a new upgraded installer, which allows the user to configure different settings from the same screen as per the requirements.

Control Centre

  • Control Center This new feature has been included in the Tally ERP 9. This utility interfaces differently between the installed telly and the user. With the help of the control center you –
  • Can make a student with the predetermined security level
  • Centrally Tally ERP 9 can manage and configure
  • Surrender on the site, Confirm or Reject
  • Can maintain account related information

CBITS Technologies provides Tally training in Chandigarh. This is a professional course that is useful for existing Tally users who already work on the Tally, also enhances their talent skills. Tally courses in Chandigarh are also for students going to college and professionals working in the field of accounting and finance.


How to use MS word

MS Word

MS Word 2010 is an application software used to create text based documents like letters, SA, statements, reports. Also in Word you can send the letter to many addresses at the same time for the marketing purpose. You can also create web pages in MS Word.

MS Word is used as a word processor.

MS Word

MS Word

Window of  MS Word 2010 looks like –

Office Element :

1) Title Bar:

This word is located at the top of the window. It displays the name of the documents you are currently working on. On the right side of the title bar, there are buttons for Minimize, Maximize / Restore and Close. And there’s a quick access toolbar in the left side.

2) Ribbon:

Ribbons have come in the earlier version of the menus and toolbars. It has tabs to browse specific tasks related commands. Next to this tab are divided into groups.

We can also hydrate this ribbon, right click anywhere on this ribbon, right click on the Minimize the Ribbon button, or click on the Ride Side Minimize the Ribbon (Ctrl + F1) button. Hiding the ribbon gives you more space to work. Click the Expand the Ribbon (Ctrl + F1) button to unhide the ribbon again.

Ribbon Contains Three Main Parts –

i) Tabs – These tasks are oriented and are located at the top of the ribbon. For example, Home, Insert, Page Layout, etc.

ii) Groups- Each tab is further divided into all Tasks. For example, the Home tab is divided into Clipboard, Font, Paragraph, Styles, and Editing Group. Each group has a small arrow in the right side, which is called Dialog Box Launcher. Additional options are available upon clicking on it.

iii) Command Buttons – These buttons are relative to each group. For example, Font Group includes the Bold, Italic, Underline, etc. commands buttons.


Tabs That Appear Only When You Need Them

In addition to the above tabs, there are other types of tabs here too. But they appear when you are doing tasks related to them.

Contextual Tools :-  When you are working on an object and when you select that object, you will see this tab.

3) File Button:

This button is in the left corner above the word window. This button has a command button such as New, Open, Save, Save As, Print and Close.

4) Quick Access Toolbar:

In the right side of the Office Buttons, there is Quick Access Toolbar, which contains buttons for the items that are always used. E.g., Save, and Undo or Redo buttons. To add more buttons to this toolbar, click on its small side of the ride side.

5) Zoom Slider

It has a Zoom slider on the status bar in the right corner of the window. Click on the plus or minus button to view the document’s different zoom sequence.

6) Document View Buttons

The left side of the Zoom Slider has the Document View buttons. You can click on any of these to see your document in Print Layout, Full Screen, Web Layout, Outline or Draft.

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Menu In MS Word 2010:

1) File :

The commands in the File menu are:

  1. a) Save (Ctrl + S): This command is used to save the document. When you click on this command, a dialog box appears below.

File Name: Here you can name the file.

Save As : Here the file format is a list, in which the file is saved. By default, the Word Document format is selected here, in which the document is saved in Word format 2010.

If you want to save in the old version, then select the Word 97-2003 format.

If you want to save this file in PDF format, then select PDF.

If you want to save this file in web page format, select web page.

Tools : This button is in the left side of Save. There is an additional option to save the document in it. Here you can set the password to protect your document.

b) Save As:

If you want to save the CREATE file by another name or in another format, then use the Save As command.

c) Open (Ctrl + O):

This command is already open to open the CREATE document file. When you click on this command, a dialog box opens, giving you the path to your file. Then click on the Open button.

d) Close:

Use this command to close open Microsoft  Word closed open files.

e) Info :

It contains the following information related to the current document –

i) Product Activation: contains information about the license of Office 2010.

ii) Permission: You can set a password here to protect your file from other users. But remember that if you forget this password you can not retrieve this password.

f) Recent: 

Here is a list of previously opened document files, clicking on which you can open those files immediately.

g) New (Ctrl + N): 

This command is used to create a blank document. Along with this there are many templates too.

h) Print (Ctrl+P): 

This command is used to print the document. There are options for this –

i) Print: Clicking on this button will send the file to print.

ii) Copies: From here you can decide how many prints of this document are to be printed.

iii) Printer: Here is the list of printers installed on your PC, from which you have to select the printer.

iv) Settings: Here, you can decide which pages of this file are to be printed.


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Models of Human Resource Management

Models of Human Resource Management (Part II)

Models of Human resource management

Now, we discuss about some models of human resource management.

The Guest Model:

It was produced by David Guest in 1997 and cases to be much better than different models. This model claims that the HR supervisor has particular methodologies in the first place, which request certain practices and when executed, will bring about results. These results incorporate social, execution and money related. (See Above Figure).

The model underlines the consistent arrangement of six parts i.e. HR procedure, HR rehearses, HR results, Behavioral results, Performance results and Financial results. Looking conversely, money related outcomes rely upon representative execution, which thus is the consequence of activity situated worker practices. Social result are the aftereffect of worker duty, quality and adaptability, which thusly are affected by Hr hones. HR  should be thus with HR systems which are constantly lined up with hierarchical methodologies.

The Warwick Model:

This model was produced by two scientists, Hendry and Pettigrew of college of Warwick (consequently the name Warwick display).Like diverse models, the Warwick suggestion rotates around five segments (See Figure):

External Context (full scale natural powers):

  • Inner Context (firm specific or micro environmental forces)
  • Business Strategy Content
  • HRM Context
  • HRM Content

This model takes awareness of business technique and HR rehearses (as the Guest Model), the outside and inner setting (not at all like the Guest Model), in which these exercises happen, and the procedure by which such changes occur, incorporating collaborations between changes in both setting and substance. the quality of the model is that it recognizes and orders critical ecological impacts on HRM. It maps the association between the outside and natural factors and investigates how HRM adjusts to changes in the specific situation. Clearly, those associations accomplishing an arrangement between the outer and inward settings will accomplish execution and development.

Storey Model – Hard HRM – Soft HRM (1989):

Hard HRM:

  • Individualistic
  • rejection/marginalization of industrial relations
  • dismissal of contrasts of perspectives amongst chiefs and workers – these are thought to be comparable
  • emphasis on gaining work efficiencies
  • sharp financial focus

Soft HRM:

Stresses the human aspect of the firm. Key points of this approach are:

  • Workers viewed as exploitable assets.
  • more of concern with the employee’s views
  • emphasis on employee relations
  • employee involvement and commitment encouraged
  • Humanistic edge of thinking
  • development of core employees

Best Practice Model – Johnson (2000):

Johnson (2000) points of interest,” the best practice or the superior work hones are depicted as HR strategies and frameworks that have widespread, added substance and beneficial outcomes on authoritative execution.”

The definition identifies with the way that the prescribed procedures that the association utilizes, each will add to the past, along these lines intensifying the subsequent execution of the association. This model depends on universalism. The presumption behind this model is – an arrangement of practices went for high responsibility or elite will profit entire association paying little respect to setting.

Elements of Best Practices (Pfeffer – 1998):

  • Employment security / Job security
  • Sophisticated selection / Selective thinking
  • Teamwork and decentralization
  • High wages linked to organizational performance
  • Extensive training
  • Narrow status differential
  • Communication and employee involvement

Patterson’s Model of HRM:

HRM practices can improve organizational performance by:

  • Increasing employee skills and abilities
  • Prompting positive attitudes and increasing motivation

Giving workers broadened obligations, with the goal that they can make full utilization of their aptitudes and capacities

Above elements give a premise to deciding ‘great’ or ‘high’ execution HRM rehearses.

Best Fit/Contingency Model:

  1. Contention – “HR methodologies turn out to be more effective when it is connected to its encompassing setting or condition of the business.”
  2. There are two components in this model:
  3. Outside Fit – the fit is connected to activity technique/promoting procedure and so forth that is, the aggressive system of general business. Schuler and Jackson (1987) built up the association between upper hand, representative practices and practices.
  4. Interior Fit – HR strategies and practices must be coherent.Approaches which work reverse path should be kept up a key separation from. For example, enabling participation anyway remunerating joint effort.

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